FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE README
This document gives a brief introduction to FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE. It includes some information on how to obtain FreeBSD, a listing of various ways to contact the FreeBSD Project, and pointers to some other sources of information.
Table of Contents
This distribution is a release of FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE, the latest point along the 11.2-STABLE branch.
FreeBSD is an operating system based on 4.4 BSD Lite for AMD64 and Intel EM64T based PC hardware (amd64), Intel, AMD, Cyrix or NexGen “x86” based PC hardware (i386), NEC PC-9801/9821 series PCs and compatibles (pc98), and UltraSPARC® machines (sparc64). Versions for the ARM® (arm), MIPS® (mips), and PowerPC® (powerpc) architectures are currently under development as well. FreeBSD works with a wide variety of peripherals and configurations and can be used for everything from software development to games to Internet Service Provision.
This release of FreeBSD contains everything you need to run such a system, including full source code for the kernel and all utilities in the base distribution. With the source distribution installed, you can literally recompile the entire system from scratch with one command, making it ideal for students, researchers, or users who simply want to see how it all works.
A large collection of third-party ported software (the “Ports Collection”) is also provided to make it easy to obtain and install all your favorite traditional UNIX® utilities for FreeBSD. Each “port” consists of a set of scripts to retrieve, configure, build, and install a piece of software, with a single command. Over 24,000 ports, from editors to programming languages to graphical applications, make FreeBSD a powerful and comprehensive operating environment that extends far beyond what’s provided by many commercial versions of UNIX®. Most ports are also available as pre-compiled “packages”, which can be quickly installed from the installation program.
This release of FreeBSD is suitable for all users. It has undergone a period of testing and quality assurance checking to ensure the highest reliability and dependability.
FreeBSD may be obtained in a variety of ways. This section focuses on those ways that are primarily useful for obtaining a complete FreeBSD distribution, rather than updating an existing installation.
CDROM and DVD
FreeBSD -RELEASE distributions may be ordered on CDROM or DVD from several publishers. This is frequently the most convenient way to obtain FreeBSD for new installations, as it provides a convenient way to quickly reinstall the system if necessary. Some distributions include some of the optional, precompiled "packages" from the FreeBSD Ports Collection, or other extra material.
A list of the CDROM and DVD publishers known to the project are listed in the Obtaining FreeBSD appendix to the Handbook.
FreeBSD releases may be downloaded via HTTPS from https://download.FreeBSD.org/, which is the official FreeBSD release site.
You can use FTP to retrieve FreeBSD and any or all of its
optional packages from
ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/, or any of its
Lists of locations that mirror FreeBSD can be found in the FTP Sites section of the Handbook. Finding a close (in networking terms) mirror from which to download the distribution is highly recommended.
Additional mirror sites are always welcome. Contact
for more details on becoming an official mirror site. You can also
find useful information for mirror sites at the Mirroring FreeBSD
Mirrors generally contain the ISO images generally used to create a CDROM of a FreeBSD release. They usually also contain floppy disk images (for applicable platforms), as well as the files necessary to do an installation over the network. Finally mirrors sites usually contain a set of packages for the most current release.
3. Contacting the FreeBSD Project
3.1. Email and Mailing Lists
For any questions or general technical support issues, please send mail to the FreeBSD general questions mailing list.
If you are tracking the 11.2-STABLE development efforts, you must join the FreeBSD-STABLE mailing list, in order to keep abreast of recent developments and changes that may affect the way you use and maintain the system.
Being a largely-volunteer effort, the FreeBSD Project is always happy to have extra hands willing to help—there are already far more desired enhancements than there is time to implement them. To contact the developers on technical matters, or with offers of help, please send mail to the FreeBSD technical discussions mailing list.
Please note that these mailing lists can experience significant amounts of traffic. If you have slow or expensive mail access, or are only interested in keeping up with major FreeBSD events, you may find it preferable to subscribe instead to the FreeBSD announcements mailing list.
All of the mailing lists can be freely joined by anyone wishing to do so. Visit the FreeBSD Mailman Info Page. This will give you more information on joining the various lists, accessing archives, etc. There are a number of mailing lists targeted at special interest groups not mentioned here; more information can be obtained either from the Mailman pages or the mailing lists section of the FreeBSD Web site.
Do not send email to the lists asking to be subscribed. Use the Mailman interface instead.
Submitting Problem Reports
Suggestions, bug reports and contributions of code are always valued—please do not hesitate to report any problems you may find. Bug reports with attached fixes are of course even more welcome.
The preferred method to submit bug reports from a machine with Internet connectivity is to use the Bugzilla bug tracker. "Problem Reports" (PRs) submitted in this way will be filed and their progress tracked; the FreeBSD developers will do their best to respond to all reported bugs as soon as possible. A list of all active PRs is available on the FreeBSD Web site; this list is useful to see what potential problems other users have encountered.
Note that send-pr(1) is deprecated.
For more information, "Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports", available on the FreeBSD Web site, has a number of helpful hints on writing and submitting effective problem reports.
There are many sources of information about FreeBSD; some are included with this distribution, while others are available on-line or in print versions.
A number of other files provide more specific information about
this release distribution. These files are provided in various
formats. Most distributions will include both ASCII text
.TXT) and HTML (
.HTM) renditions. Some distributions may also
include other formats such as Portable Document Format
README.TXT: This file, which gives some general information about FreeBSD as well as some cursory notes about obtaining a distribution.
RELNOTES.TXT: The release notes, showing what’s new and different in FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE compared to the previous release (FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE).
HARDWARE.TXT: The hardware compatibility list, showing devices with which FreeBSD has been tested and is known to work.
ERRATA.TXT: Release errata. Late-breaking, post-release information can be found in this file, which is principally applicable to releases (as opposed to snapshots). It is important to consult this file before installing a release of FreeBSD, as it contains the latest information on problems which have been found and fixed since the release was created.
On platforms that support bsdinstall(8) (currently amd64, i386, ia64, pc98, and sparc64), these documents are generally available via the Documentation menu during installation. Once the system is installed, you can revisit this menu by re-running the bsdinstall(8) utility.
It is extremely important to read the errata for any given release before installing it, to learn about any “late-breaking news” or post-release problems. The errata file accompanying each release (most likely right next to this file) is already out of date by definition, but other copies are kept updated on the Internet and should be consulted as the “current errata” for this release. These other copies of the errata are located at FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE page (as well as any sites which keep up-to-date mirrors of this location).
As with almost all UNIX® like operating systems, FreeBSD comes with a set of on-line manual pages, accessed through the man(1) command or through the hypertext manual pages gateway on the FreeBSD Web site. In general, the manual pages provide information on the different commands and APIs available to the FreeBSD user.
Books and Articles
Two highly-useful collections of FreeBSD-related information,
maintained by the FreeBSD Project, are the FreeBSD Handbook and
FreeBSD FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions document). On-line versions
of the Handbook and
FAQ are always
available from the FreeBSD Documentation
page or its mirrors. If you install the
doc distribution set, you can use a Web browser
to read the Handbook and FAQ locally. In particular, note that the
Handbook contains a step-by-step guide to installing FreeBSD.
A number of on-line books and articles, also maintained by the
FreeBSD Project, cover more-specialized, FreeBSD-related topics.
This material spans a wide range of topics, from effective use of
the mailing lists, to dual-booting FreeBSD with other operating
systems, to guidelines for new committers. Like the Handbook and
FAQ, these documents are available from the FreeBSD Documentation
Page or in the
doc distribution set.
A listing of other books and documents about FreeBSD can be found in the bibliography of the FreeBSD Handbook. Because of FreeBSD’s strong UNIX® heritage, many other articles and books written for UNIX® systems are applicable as well, some of which are also listed in the bibliography.
FreeBSD represents the cumulative work of many hundreds, if not thousands, of individuals from around the world who have worked countless hours to bring about this release. For a complete list of FreeBSD developers and contributors, please see "Contributors to FreeBSD" on the FreeBSD Web site or any of its mirrors.
Special thanks also go to the many thousands of FreeBSD users and testers all over the world, without whom this release simply would not have been possible.